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Circumduction is a motion that is a “rounded-out circle” created from a sequence of four joint actions.
- Circumduction is NOT a joint action.
- Rather, it is a series of joints actions, each one preformed sequentially after the joint action before it.
- In the top figure above, we see performed the following joint actions of the neck at the cervical spinal joints:
- left lateral flexion
- right lateral flexion
- These joint actions create a square motion pattern.
- In the bottom figure, we see the square “rounded out” to be a circle.
- But it is still a sequence of the joint actions listed above.
Note: Circumduction does NOT involve rotation; there is NO rotation as a part of a circumduction motion pattern. It is a circular pattern of frontal-plane and sagittal-plane joint actions.