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The Plantar Interossei are intrinsic muscles of the foot located in Plantar Layer IV. The muscles located in Plantar Layer IV are:
- Plantar interossei
- Dorsal interossei pedis
There are three Plantar Interossei muscles, named #1, #2, and #3, from medial (big-toe side) to lateral (little-toe side).
- The plantar interossei attach from metatarsals #3-5 to the proximal phalanges of toes #3-5 on the “second-toe side.”
- Plantar interosseus #1 attaches onto toe #3.
- Plantar interosseus #2 attaches onto toe #4.
- Plantar interosseus #3 attaches onto toe #5 (little toe).
- The plantar interossei also attach distally into the dorsal digital expansion.
- Adducts toes #3-5 at the metatarsophalangeal joints.
- Flexes toes #3-5 at the metatarsophalangeal joints.
- Extends toes #3-5 at the proximal and distal interphalangeal joints.
- Because the plantar interossei attach onto their respective toes on the “second toe side,” they bring those toes toward the second toe, which is defined as adduction.
- There is a mnemonic for remembering the abductors/adductors of the toes: DAB PAD – Dorsals ABduct Plantars ADduct.