This case series of five patients with frozen shoulder demonstrates that active muscle guarding may be a major contributing factor to frozen shoulder.
Signs, symptoms, and assessment (diagnosis) of frozen shoulder
The most common sign of frozen shoulder is decreased GH joint range of motion. Most commonly affected motions are abduction, flexion, and lateral rotation.
What are the causes of frozen shoulder?
Frozen shoulder is a condition in which the glenohumeral joint loses mobility. The two stages are neurogenic frozen shoulder and adhesive capsulitis.