The authors concluded that decreased hip ROM in professional soccer players is associated with more hip pain and groin pain and is associated with previous injuries, independent of the presence of a cam deformity.
Motions of the lumbar spine: The lumbar spine can move axially and nonaxially in all three cardinal planes (sagittal, frontal, and transverse).
The function of the psoas major has been claimed to be both medial rotation and lateral rotation. However, most sources agree that it is a lateral rotator.
Table 1 shows average healthy ranges of axial motion of the cervical spine (head and neck), from the atlanto-occipital joint through the C7-T1 joint.