Table 1 shows average healthy ranges of axial motion of the cervical spine (head and neck), from the atlanto-occipital joint through the C7-T1 joint.
Cervical Spinal Joints
The disc joint is a cartilaginous joint that is composed of outer fibers called the annulus fibrosus that encircle the inner nucleus pulposus.
What is Joint Mobilization?
Grades IV and V joint mobilization are essentially pin and stretch technique.
Bone “A” is pinned and then Bone “B” is moved relative to Bone “A.”