This study seems to show a relationship between iliotibial band (ITB) syndrome and knee adduction (genu varum) and the activation of the TFL. A relationship can be two incidents that occur together, termed a “coincidence.” Or there can be a causal relationship between them; i.e., one causes the other to occur.
A proposed biomechanical explanation is that restricted ankle joint dorsiflexion directly results in overpronation of the foot, which causes internal rotation of the lower extremity, which strains the external/abductor musculature, which can then no longer prevent femoral adduction; hence genu valgus.
Perhaps the difference in physical activity explains the controversial results regarding Vastus medialis obliquus and Vastus Lateralis engagement.
The study published shows that even correcting for body mass index and age, osteoarthritis of the knee is twice as common now as it was before the 1950s.
This video demonstrates Apley’s compression test for the knee joint, which assesses/diagnoses meniscus pathology.