backpack and adolescent back pain article by Joseph Muscolino.

Does Carrying a Backpack Cause Back Pain in Adolescents?

And perhaps the biggest problem I have with this study about backpacks and adolescent back pain is that an overuse syndrome usually does NOT cause pain in the early stages. When the body is physically stressed by something like carrying a backpack, it often requires many years before the overuse results in pain.

Text Neck Posture. Permission Joseph E. Muscolino. www.learnmuscles.com.

Text Neck and Neck Pain… and Neck Dysfunction

With any imbalanced posture (postural distortion pattern), including text neck posture, asymmetrical pathomechanical forces are placed into the tissues of the body. These forces have to have an effect. I believe it is impossible to argue that pathomechanics do not lead to dysfunction.

Suggested postures for smart phone use.

The Price of Smart Phones – Ten Conditions Caused by Smart Phone Use

Following are ten of the most common dysfunctional postural patterns and injuries that may occur with smart phone (cell/mobile phone) use.